Antioxidants (Basel). 2023 Aug 16 ;12(8). Epub 2023 Aug 16. PMID: 37627614
Results of Supplementation with the Standardized Extract of Saffron (affron) on the Kynurenine Pathway and Melatonin Synthesis in Rats.
Melatonin is a hormone that regulates sleep-wake cycles and is principally synthesized within the pineal gland from tryptophan after its conversion into serotonin. Below regular circumstances, lower than 5% of tryptophan is reserved for the synthesis of serotonin and melatonin. The remaining 95% is metabolized within the liver by way of the kynurenine pathway. Elevated ranges of proinflammatory cytokines and cortisol enhance the metabolism of tryptophan by way of the kynurenine pathway and cut back its availability for the synthesis of melatonin and serotonin, which can trigger alterations in temper and sleep. The standardized saffron extract (affron) has proven helpful results on temper and sleep issues in people, however the underlying mechanisms aren’t nicely understood. Thus, the goal of this work was to review the consequences of affronsupplementation on the kynurenine pathway and the synthesis of melatonin in rats. For this function, grownup male Wistar rats had been supplemented for 7 days with 150 mg/kg of affronor car (2 mL/kg water) administered by gavage one hour earlier than sleep. Affronsupplementation decreased physique weight acquire and elevated the circulating ranges of melatonin, testosterone, and c-HDL. Furthermore, animals supplemented with affronshowed decreased serum ranges of kynurenine, ET-1, and c-LDL. Within the pineal gland, affronreducedexpression and elevated the expression of, the important thing enzyme for melatonin synthesis. Within the liver, affronadministration decreased the mRNA ranges of the enzymes of the kynurenine pathway,, and, in addition to the gene expression ofand. Lastly, rats handled with affronshowed elevated mRNA ranges of the antioxidant enzymes,,, and, each within the liver and within the pineal gland. In conclusion, affronsupplementation reduces kynurenine ranges and promotes melatonin synthesis in rats, presumably by way of its antioxidant and anti inflammatory results, making this extract a potential different for the therapy and/or prevention of temper and sleep issues.